Generating an NLP Corpus from Java Source Code: The SSL Javadoc Doclet


Source code contains a large amount of natural language text, particularly in the form of comments, which makes it an emerging target of text analysis techniques. Due to the mix with program code, it is difficult to process source code comments directly within NLP frameworks such as GATE. Within this work we present an effective means for generating a corpus using information found in source code and in-line documentation, by developing a custom doclet for the Javadoc tool. The generated corpus uses a schema that is easily processed by NLP applications, which allows language engineers to focus their efforts on text analysis tasks, like automatic quality control of source code comments. The SSLDoclet is available as open source software.

Predicate-Argument EXtractor (PAX)


Screenshot of MultiPAX resultsScreenshot of MultiPAX resultsIn this paper, we describe the open source GATE component PAX for extracting predicate-argument structures (PASs). PASs are used in various contexts to represent relations within a sentence structure. Different ``semantic'' parsers extract relational information from sentences but there exists no common format to store this information. Our predicate-argument extractor component (PAX) takes the annotations generated by selected parsers and transforms the parsers' results to predicate-argument structures represented as triples (subject-verb-object). This allows downstream components in an analysis pipeline to process PAS triples independent of the deployed parser, as well as combine the results from several parsers within a single pipeline.

Flexible Ontology Population from Text: The OwlExporter


Ontology population from text is becoming increasingly important for NLP applications. Ontologies in OWL format provide for a standardized means of modeling, querying, and reasoning over large knowledge bases. Populated from natural language texts, they offer significant advantages over traditional export formats, such as plain XML. The development of text analysis systems has been greatly facilitated by modern NLP frameworks, such as the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE). However, ontology population is not currently supported by a standard component. We developed a GATE resource called the OwlExporter that allows to easily map existing NLP analysis pipelines to OWL ontologies, thereby allowing language engineers to create ontology population systems without requiring extensive knowledge of ontology APIs. A particular feature of our approach is the concurrent population and linking of a domain- and NLP-ontology, including NLP-specific features such as safe reasoning over coreference chains.

Converting a Historical Architecture Encyclopedia into a Semantic Knowledge Base


Digitizing a historical document using ontologies and natural language processing techniques can transform it from arcane text to a useful knowledge base.

Believe It or Not: Solving the TAC 2009 Textual Entailment Tasks through an Artificial Believer System


The Text Analysis Conference (TAC) 2009 competition featured a new textual entailment search task, which extends the 2008 textual entailment task. The goal is to find information in a set of documents that are entailed from a given statement. Rather than designing a system specifically for this task, we investigated the adaptation of an existing artificial believer system to solve this task. The results show that this is indeed possible, and furthermore allows to recast the existing, divergent tasks of textual entailment and automatic summarization under a common umbrella.

Semantic Assistants: SOA for Text Mining

With the rapidly growing amount of information available, employees spend an ever-increasing proportion of their time searching for the right information. Information overload has become a serious threat to productivity. We address this challenge with a service-oriented architecture that integrates semantic natural language processing services into desktop applications.

A Quality Perspective of Evolvability Using Semantic Analysis


Software development and maintenance are highly distributed processes that involve a multitude of supporting tools and resources. Knowledge relevant to these resources is typically dispersed over a wide range of artifacts, representation formats, and abstraction levels. In order to stay competitive, organizations are often required to assess and provide evidence that their software meets the expected requirements. In our research, we focus on assessing non-functional quality requirements, specifically evolvability, through semantic modeling of relevant software artifacts. We introduce our SE-Advisor that supports the integration of knowledge resources typically found in software ecosystems by providing a unified ontological representation. We further illustrate how our SE-Advisor takes advantage of this unified representation to support the analysis and assessment of different types of quality attributes related to the evolvability of software ecosystems.

Semantic Assistants – User-Centric Natural Language Processing Services for Desktop Clients


Semantic Assistants Workflow OverviewSemantic Assistants Workflow OverviewToday's knowledge workers have to spend a large amount of time and manual effort on creating, analyzing, and modifying textual content. While more advanced semantically-oriented analysis techniques have been developed in recent years, they have not yet found their way into commonly used desktop clients, be they generic (e.g., word processors, email clients) or domain-specific (e.g., software IDEs, biological tools). Instead of forcing the user to leave his current context and use an external application, we propose a ``Semantic Assistants'' approach, where semantic analysis services relevant for the user's current task are offered directly within a desktop application. Our approach relies on an OWL ontology model for context and service information and integrates external natural language processing (NLP) pipelines through W3C Web services.

A General Architecture for Connecting NLP Frameworks and Desktop Clients using Web Services


Despite impressive advances in the development of generic NLP frameworks, content-specific text mining algorithms, and NLP services, little progress has been made in enhancing existing end-user clients with text analysis capabilities. To overcome this software engineering gap between desktop environments and text analysis frameworks, we developed an open service-oriented architecture, based on Semantic Web ontologies and W3C Web services, which makes it possible to easily integrate any NLP service into client applications.

Semantic Technologies in System Maintenance (STSM 2008)


This paper gives a brief overview of the International Workshop on Semantic Technologies in System Maintenance. It describes a number of semantic technologies (e.g., ontologies, text mining, and knowledge integration techniques) and identifies diverse tasks in software maintenance where the use of semantic technologies can be beneficial, such as traceability, system comprehension, software artifact analysis, and information integration.

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